Whats that two tier health care

Two-tier health care is a form of national health care system that is used in most developed countries. It is a system in which a guaranteed public health care system exists, but where a private system operates in parallel. The private system has the benefit of shorter waiting times and more luxurious treatment, but costs far more than the public one for patients. Thus there are two tiers of health care, one for the public at large and another for those who are wealthy enough to pay for better care.

The term is most often used in Canadian health discussions where the debate over two-tier health care has long been central. Moving to a two tier system is supported by conservative think tanks such as the Fraser Institute. The potential for vast profits has created a strong lobby in the health industry, which is today confined to the periphery. As it stands now, Canada does not have a parallel system, free market health care for Canadians being almost wholly banned in fields covered by the national health system; some private clinics and hospitals which were operating when the national health care plan was instituted (for example, the Shouldice Hospital in Thornhill, Ontario) continue to operate, although they may not bill additional charges for medical procedures. Private health care may also be supplied in uncovered fields and to foreigners.

The phrase is also sometimes used in other countries and among health care experts. In Europe it often has the same meaning as in the Canadian context, but is used there to describe the status quo. However, sometimes it has a somewhat different meaning relating to the expansion of private sector involvement through voucher programs or other initiatives.

The proponents of two-tier system argue that it would introduce more flexibility into the system, reducing wait lists and that competition from the private sector would make the public one more efficient. Opponents argue that a two-tier system would tend to draw many of the best doctors out of the public system, reducing the overall level of care. The Canada Health Act is also committed not only access to health care to all, but access to the best health care available for all. Many on the left consider access to the best possible care an important right of all citizens. Competition from the private sector would also almost certainly drive up the wages of doctors and other medical professionals in the entire system. Those who support a wholly public system also say that there is some concern that if Canada would allow a parallel private system within the country, it would be opening itself up to trade sanctions under some of its trading agreements.

It should be noted that all advanced countries in the world have two-tier primary health care to varying degrees except for Canada outside Quebec where officially but not in practice it is illegal. Many two-tier systems do attempt to resolve these difficulties. Australia, for instance, requires all doctors to work some of their time in the public system. However, if care is not superior in the private system no one would use it so a certain imbalance between the care received by the rich and the poor exists in all two-tier systems.

The Canadian people are largely opposed to the notion of two-tier health care, and no major political parties support the notion. In the 2000 Canadian election the Liberals and NDP accused the Canadian Alliance of secretly supporting it, leading to a famous incident when in the leaders debate Canadian Alliance leader Stockwell Day began waving a hand written “No Two-Tier Medicine” sign. Some argue that Canada already does have a two-tier health care system as the very wealthy can go to the United States for treatment, and quite a few Canadians do each year. Some provinces have increasingly allowed the private sector to provide medical services for a fee. Quebec has especially allowed the private sector to provide enhanced medical services to the public for a fee.

It is important that you should know before liver transplantation

Liver transplantation is ideal when the liver no longer purposes sufficiently (liver failure). Liver failure can befall suddenly (critical liver failure) as an effect of contamination or difficulties from unsure suppositories or it can be the end result of a long-standing delinquent. These few circumstances may be upshot in liver failure:

  • Long-lasting hepatitis with cirrhosis.
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis (an ailment where the invulnerable system inaptly assaults and extinguishes the bile tubes triggering liver failure).
  • Sclerosing cholangitis (damaging and tapering of the bile tubes inside and outside of the liver instigating the stoppage of bile in the liver which can lead to liver failure).
  • Biliary atresia (deformity of the bile tubes).
  • Heavy drinking
  • Wilson’s disease (a rare hereditary disease with an irregular removal of copper all through the body, including the liver, causing it to fail).
  • Hemochromatosis (a common hereditary illness where the body is flabbergasted with iron).
  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (an anomalous increase of alpha-1 antitrypsin protein in the liver, ensuing in cirrhosis).
  • Liver cancer

How are candidates for liver transplant determined?

Assessments by experts from a range of fields are required to decide if a liver transplant is suitable. The assessment comprises an analysis of your health history and a variety of tests. Numerous healthcare amenities offer an interdisciplinary method to assess and to choose contenders for liver replacement. This interdisciplinary healthcare side may include the following specialists:

  • Liver expert (herpetologist).
  • Transplant experts
  • Transplant manager, generally a disclosed nurse who focuses on the care of liver transplant patients (this person will be your chief interaction with the transplant squad).
  • Social worker to converse your funding linkage of family and friends, service history, and economic necessities.
  • Counselor to help you deal with matters, such as nervousness and downheartedness.
  • Anesthesiologist to talk over possible anesthesia jeopardies.
  • Chemical reliance professional to help those with past of liquor or drug abuse.
  • Financial analyst to act as a link between a patient and his or her insurance corporations.

Which tests are mandatory before getting a liver transplant?

You will be required to carry all of your previous doctor chronicles, X-rays, liver operation slides and a record of suppositories to your pre-evaluation for a liver transplant. To balance and to update previous tests, some or all of the following indicative revisions are mostly done during your assessment.

  • Computed tomography, which uses X-rays and a processor to produce pictures of the liver, screening its size and shape.
  • Doppler ultrasound to govern if the blood vessels to and from your liver are uncluttered.
  • Echocardiogram to help assess your heart.
  • Pulmonary purpose studies to define your lungs’ capability to interchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • Blood tests to decide blood type, coagulation ability, and biological status of blood and to estimate liver. AIDS testing and hepatitis conduction are also encompassed.

Hepatitis B and Unani Medicine

Hepatitis is a general term that means inflammation of the liver. The liver can become inflamed as a result of infection, a disorder of theimmune system, or exposure to alcohol, certain medications, toxins, or poisons.

  • Hepatitis B is caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This infection has 2 phases: acute and chronic.
    • Acute (new, short-term) hepatitis B occurs shortly after exposure to the virus. A small number of people develop a very severe, life-threatening form of acute hepatitis called fulminant hepatitis.
    • Chronic (ongoing, long-term) hepatitis B is an infection with HBV that lasts longer than 6 months. Once the infection becomes chronic, it may never go away completely.
    • About 90-95% of people who are infected are able to fight off the virus so their infection never becomes chronic. Only about 5-10 percent of adults infected with HBV go on to develop chronic infection.
  • HBV infection is one of the most important causes of infectious hepatitis. People with chronic HBV infection are called chronic carriers. About two-thirds of these people do not themselves get sick or die of the virus, but they can transmit it to other people. The remaining one third develop chronic hepatitis B, a disease of the liver that can be very serious.
    • The liver is an essential organ that the body needs to stay alive. Its most important functions are filtering many drugs and toxins out of the blood, storing energy for later use, helping with the absorption of certain nutrients from food, and producing substances that fight infections and control bleeding.  The liver has an incredible ability to heal itself, but it can only heal itself if nothing is damaging it.

Causes The hepatitis B virus is known as a blood-borne virus because it is transmitted from one person to another via blood.

  • Semen and saliva, which contain small amounts of blood, also carry the virus.
  • The virus can be transmitted whenever any of these bodily fluids come in contact with the broken skin or a mucous membrane (in the mouth, genital organs, or rectum) of an uninfected person.
  • People who are at increased risk of being infected with the hepatitis B virus include the following:
    • Men or women who have multiple sex partners, especially if they don’t use a condom
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Men or women who have sex with a person infected with HBV
    • People with other STDPeople who inject drugs with shared needles
    • People who receive transfusions of blood or blood products
    • People who undergo dialysis for kidney disease
    • Institutionalized mentally handicapped people and their attendants and family members
    • Health care workers who are stuck with needles or other sharp instruments contaminated with infected blood
    • Infants born to infected mothers
  • In some cases, the source of transmission is never known.
  • The younger you are when you become infected with the hepatitis B virus, the more likely you are to develop chronic hepatitis B. The rates of progression to chronic hepatitis B are as follows:
    • 90% of infants infected at birth
    • 30% of children infected at age 1-5 years
    • 6% of people infected after age 5 years
    • 5-10% of infected adult

Symptoms Half of all people infected with the hepatitis B virus have no symptoms.

  • Symptoms develop within 30-180 days of exposure to the virus. The symptoms are often compared to flu. Most people think they have flu and never think about having HBV infection.
    • Appetite loss
    • Feeling tired , Nausea and vomiting, Itching all over the body, Pain over the liver (on the right side of the abdomen, under the lower rib cage, Jaundice, Urine becomes dark in color (like cola or tea).
    • Stools are pale in color (grayish or clay colored).
  • Many types of acute viral hepatitis  have similar symptoms. Fulminant hepatitis is an unusual illness. It is a severe form of acute hepatitis that can be life threatening if not treated right away. The symptoms develop very suddenly.
    • Mental disturbances such as confusion,  extreme sleepiness or hallucinations.
    • Sudden collapse with fatigue, Jaundice, Swelling of the abdomen
  • Prolonged nausea and vomiting can cause dehydration. If you have been vomiting repeatedly, you may notice these symptoms:
    • Feeling tired or weak
    • Feeling confused or having difficulty concentrating
    • Not urinating
    • Irritability
  • Symptoms of liver failure may include the following:
    • Fluid retention causing swelling of the belly and sometimes the legs
    • Weight gain due to ascites
    • Persistent jaundice
    • Loss of appetite and weight.
    • Vomiting with blood in the vomit
    • Bleeding from the nose, mouth, or rectum or blood in the stool
    • Hepatic encephalopathy (excessive sleepiness, mental confusion, and in advanced stages, development of coma)


Since many people with hepatitis B do not have symptoms, they do not know they have the disease.

  • Hepatitis B is often discovered accidentally when you see your health care provider for another reason.
  • Blood tests done for an annual check-up, insurance purposes, or before surgery may show abnormalities in the liver blood test results.

If your health care provider determines that you may be at risk for contracting hepatitis, you will have blood drawn.

  • The laboratory will examine the blood to determine how well your liver is functioning, if this has not already been done.
  • Your blood will be tested to determine whether you have been exposed to certain hepatitis viruses and, possibly, other viruses.
  • If you have had a large amount of vomiting or have not been able to take in liquids, your blood electrolytes may also be checked to ensure that your blood chemistry is in balance.
  • Other tests may be ordered to rule out other medical conditions.
  • Liver biopsy – This involves removal of a tiny piece of the liver. It is usually done by inserting a long needle into the liver and withdrawing the tissue. The tissue is examined under a microscope to detect changes in the liver. A biopsy may be done to detect the extent of liver damage or to evaluate how well a treatment is working.

Unani Treatment:

  1. Decoction of Bekh Karfas, Bekh Badyan each 7 gm, Bekh Izkhar, Qust each 1 gm, Afsanteen, Asaroon, Gafis each 2 gm, Hulba 2 gm, Maveez munaqa 7 in numb, Akleel-ul malik 5 gm, use this decoction twice a day before meal with Roghan Baadam 4 ml.
  2. Decoction of Maveez munaqa 6 in numb, Injeer khusk 2 in numb, Unnab 20 in numb, Bekh karfas 10 gm, Baadyan, Anisoon each 7 gm, Hulba 6 gm. Use this decoction with Roghan Baid Injeer 6 ml, Roghan Baadam 5 ml twice daily.
  3. Apply this paste locally: Banafsa 6 gm, Aklil-ul malik 6 gm, Gul Baboona 6 gm, Tukhm Kitan 3 gm, Tukhm Hulba 3 gm, Mastagi Romi 2 gm, boil in water and make paste in Roghan Mom and apply locally at hypochondrial region.
  4. Habbe Kabid Noshadari 2 hab after every meal.
  5. Sharbat Bazoori mutadil 20 ml twice.
  6. Habbe Musaffi khoon
  7. Asanasia sageer
  8. Qurs Gafis
  9. Arq Kasini 60 ml mix in Arq Mako 60 ml also beneficial.

Diet menu for Heart Patients

A diet which is healthy for heart is recommended for everyone. But it is all more important for the people who are suffering from any kind of heart related problems including heart valve diseases. Having a healthy heart diet is the important part of the health care. Having a healthy diet is necessary for the people who have had the valve surgery or valve replacement or about to have it. The immediate heart problem can be solved by a heart valve surgery but future risk of having a heart problem can not be avoided. To reduce the risk of any other future heart problem can be minimized by having a Diet plan for Heart Patients. To incorporate dietary changes is very important for the heart patients to avoid any such problems.

Diet plan for Heart patients should include following recommendations. While it is recommended to loose body weight, if you are above the optimum range, but to do this, stay away from fad diets or methods to loose weight quickly. For a healthy diet, quality of fat matters more than the quantity. Go for reduced quantity of fat and also switch to Omega 3 fats in your diet. You can have it by including flaxseeds and fish in your food. Stay away from foods like red meat, sweet preparations like cakes, cheese, butter, pastries, margarine, oily, fried food and carbonated drinks.

You should include such things in your diet which help make the heart healthier. These include food such as potatoes, broccoli, spinach, tofu, and wheat germ. These foods are high in magnesium which is needed for the health of heart. A good diet plan for heart patients should include about 8-9 servings of the fresh fruits and vegetables in one day and at least one serving of green leafy vegetable daily. You should include low fat foods such as poultry, fish, lean meats, fresh fruits and vegetables, cereals and whole grain products in the diet.

After the heart surgery, a patient need to have light liquid diet for about one to three days before resuming regular diet, only on the recommendation of the doctor. For preparing the food for heart patients, cooking methods such as baking, grilling and microwaving are recommended rather than frying.

Heart patients can include certain health supplements in their diet but only after consultation with their physician. They should never take any over-the-counter medicine without the prescription. Any medicine, even if it is a health supplement, can affect the any medication prescribed for heart. Besides these dietary recommendations, Visit to a dietician or nutritionist is a must for any heart patient.